This is a quick overview of what the instructional design process is. This post is meant to be a quick reference of what to keep in mind while moving forward developing educational content within the various areas of STEM.
For starters what is instructional design and why should you know it as an instructor? Well instructional design is the process of building instructional training together so that the learner can best learn the specific goals. By ensuring that the design of a lesson is structured in a specific way will go a long way in providing the learner's satisfaction, building on their preexisting knowledge, and providing an overall improvement to the body of knowledge for which you are providing instruction.
Learning becomes more effective when you make sure the instruction has the following items met.
- Clear Structure
- Relevant Examples
- Demonstrate Skills
- Engage Discussion
- Practical Activities
- Helpful Handouts
The principles of instructional design that follow are an effective way of providing training.
Integrate -New knowledge is integrated into the learner's world
Learners need time to reflect individually about what was learned fits into their unique lives.
Activate - Existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge
Knowledge is organized into schema of what you know and know how to do. Ask about or provide information that help connect the existing knowledge to the new knowledge trying to be learned. You can describe your own experience as you learned it , provide an organized structure of what is to be learned, or show problems they will be able to solve. Visual models can assist in fitting (Elicit experiences, present experiences, provide a framework)
Problem-Based - Learning is promoted when solving real world problems
The entire training is revolved around solving a real world task. Show the problems upfront that will be solved as a result. Make the problems real and progressive. Start with an objective in the presentation but not in an order of what the presenter is going to do. Show what the learner be able to achieve as a result of the course. (show problems upfront, make problems real, make problems progressive)
Apply - New knowledge is provided to the learners world
Allow learner the time to practice and apply skills. Learners need to do what the instructor has just performed them-self. Learners need to show concepts, skills and processes that have been mastered. The instructor can provide feedback, (let them give example, let them practice, provide feedback)
Demonstrate - New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner
Knowledge is broken down into concepts, skills, and processes. An instructor should show examples and non examples, demonstrate skills, and provide visual processes or compare it to another process. Try to show and tell, give examples, and use multiple media.(Concepts, Skills, Processes)
The tools an Instructional Designer uses are
- Process - Systematic process creating the instruction
- Theory - Understanding how people learn and how to help them improve
- Physical - Anything used to create instruction
The general process known in the ADDIE Process is:
- Analyze -What are the goals, specific objectives, and performances that learners need to perform. What do the learners know so we can improve it. Where will learners be lusing what they are earning.
- Design - What strategy, medium, how will learners interact with the materials? Plan in a way that reflects what you know about the way people learn.
- Develop - Create materials and experiences for learner with physical tools.
- Implement - Have the users really used the materials in the way that was intended?
- Evaluate - The formative evaluation is getting feedback on how the instruction is working in order to revise instruction.
Each step needs to be thought about carefully in order to accurately and effectively carry out the next step.
Systematic Design of Instruction
- Identify instructional Goals - What needs to be mastered at the end of instruction
- Conduct instructional Analysis - Look at the sub skills that need to be met in order to reach final goal
- Analyze leraners in context - Who are the learners and in what context will they learn and use the skills that are trying to be developed.
- Write performance objectives - What will the learners be able to do at the end of the instruction.
- Develop assessment instruments - Find out how well the instruction has worked.
- Develop instructional strategy - Your strategy should be based on instructional theory. Plan out the way to present content to the learners.
- Develop instructional material - Create the materials that will be used.
- Design and conduct informative evaluation - This purpose is to help improve the process that was created. It will assist in gaining insight on how to improve instruction.
- Revise - You then go back and improve instruction to make sure each of the previous steps was accurate and to make changes as necessary.
- Design and conduct summative evaluation
David H. Merrill PhD -