Chemistry

I. Structure of Matter

A. Atomic theory and atomic structure

Evidence for the atomic theory
Atomic masses; determination by chemical and physical means
Atomic number and mass number; isotopes
Electron energy levels: atomic spectra, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals
Periodic relationships including atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities, oxidation states

B. Chemical bonding

Binding forces
a. Types: ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals (including London dispersion forces)
b. Relationships to states, structure, and properties of matter
c. Polarity of bonds, electronegativities
Molecular models a. Lewis structures
b. Valence bond: hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds
c. VSEPR
Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes; dipole moments of molecules; relation of properties to structure

C. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives, and radioactivity; chemical applications

II. States of Matter

A. Gases

Laws of ideal gases
a. Equation of state for an ideal gas
b. Partial pressures
Kinetic-molecular theory
a. Interpretation of ideal gas laws on the basis of this theory
b. Avogadro's hypothesis and the mole concept
c. Dependence of kinetic energy of molecules on temperature
d. Deviations from ideal gas laws

B. Liquids and solids

Liquids and solids from the kinetic-molecular viewpoint
Phase diagrams of one-component systems
Changes of state, including critical points and triple points
Structure of solids; lattice energies

C. Solutions

Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility
Methods of expressing concentration (The use of normalities is not tested.)
Raoult's law and colligative properties (nonvolatile solutes); osmosis
Non-ideal behavior (qualitative aspects)

III. Reactions

A. Reaction types

Acid-base reactions; concepts of Arrhenius, Brönsted-Lowry, and Lewis; coordination complexes; amphoterism
Precipitation reactions
Oxidation-reduction reactions
a. Oxidation number
b. The role of the electron in oxidation-reduction
c. Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells; Faraday's laws; standard half-cell potentials; Nernst equation; prediction of the direction of redox reactions

B. Stoichiometry

Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems: net ionic equations
Balancing of equations including those for redox reactions
Mass and volume relations with emphasis on the mole concept, including empirical formulas and limiting reactants

C. Equilibrium

Concept of dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical; Le Chatelier's principle; equilibrium constants
Quantitative treatment
a. Equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions: Kp, Kc
b. Equilibrium constants for reactions in solution
(1) Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH
(2) Solubility product constants and their application to precipitation and the dissolution of slightly soluble compounds
(3) Common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis

D. Kinetics

Concept of rate of reaction
Use of experimental data and graphical analysis to determine reactant order, rate constants, and reaction rate laws
Effect of temperature change on rates
Energy of activation; the role of catalysts
The relationship between the rate-determining step and a mechanism

E. Thermodynamics

State functions
First law: change in enthalpy; heat of formation; heat of reaction; Hess's law; heats of vaporization and fusion; calorimetry
Second law: entropy; free energy of formation; free energy of reaction; dependence of change in free energy on enthalpy and entropy changes
Relationship of change in free energy to equilibrium constants and electrode potentials

IV. Descriptive Chemistry

A. Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions

B. Relationships in the periodic table: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal with examples from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the first series of transition elements

C. Introduction to organic chemistry: hydrocarbons and functional groups (structure, nomenclature, chemical properties). Physical and chemical properties of simple organic compounds should also be included as exemplary material for the study of other areas such as bonding, equilibria involving weak acids, kinetics, colligative properties, and stoichiometric determinations of empirical and molecular formulas.

V. Laboratory

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